Most of Marco’s recent publications are freely available at : or


Retooling the Sustainability Standards in EU Free Trade Agreements, 24 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 25-51 (Issue 1, 2021) (co-authored with Giovanni Gruni)


Trade Conflicts – Whither the WTO? 47 LEGAL ISSUES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 221-245 (NO. 3, 2020); a shortened version in Dutch was published in 69 ARS AEQUI 694-705 (Bijzonder Nummer: Concurrentie, 2020)

Why the Netherlands Should Ratify CETA, EJIL Talk!, blog of the European Journal of International Law (June 30, 2020) (co-authored with Freya Baetens, Pieter Jan Kuijper, Wim Voermans, Ramses Wessel)


Taking the Enforcement of Labour Standards in the EU’s Free Trade Agreements Seriously,
56 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW (NO. 6, 2019)  (with Giovanni Gruni)


Improving the Enforcement of Labour Standards in the EU’s Free Trade Agreements, in Restoring Trust in International Trade: Liber Amicorum in honour of Peter Van den Bossche 157-172 (Denise Prévost, Iveta Alexovičová, Jens Hillebrand Pohl eds., Hart Publishing, Oxford 2018)

(co-authored with Giovanni Gruni)


Trading Together Declaration (26 January 2017) (co-authored with Reinhard Quick and Pierre d’Argent)

How to get out of the CETA mess

Leiden law blog:  (26 January 2017)

Financial Payments as a Remedy in WTO Dispute Settlement Proceedings: An Update, in Wto Dispute Settlement: Time to Take Stock 67-98 (Jacques Bourgeois, Marco Bronckers and Reinhard Quick eds., Peter Lang, Brussels, 2017) (co-authored with Freya Baetens)


John Jackson as a Teacher, in 19 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 397-399

(Issue 2, 2016) (co-authored with Reinhard Quick)


Is Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) Superior to Litigation before Domestic Courts? An EU View on Bilateral Trade Agreements, in 18 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 655-677 (Issue 3, 2015)


Is ISDS Superior to Litigation before Domestic Courts? An EU View, EFILA blog: superior-to- litigation-before- domestic-courts- an-eu-view/ (6 October 2015)


Schizophrenia in the EU about International Law, Leiden law blog: the-eu- about-international- law (21 January 2015)


WTO Appellate Body: China Raw Materials (2012), in VIJFTIG juridische opstellen voor een Leidse nachtwacht  53-60 (Blokker, van den Bogaert, Koffeman, Loenen & Ölcer eds., Boom Juridische uitgevers, 2014) 


China Raw Materials:  A controversial step towards evenhanded exploitation of natural resources, 13 WORLD TRADE REVIEW 393-408 (Issue 2, 2014 (co-authored with Keith Maskus)


Euro-Preference in EU Trade and Competition Law, in COMPETITION LAW IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS – In Need of Adjustment? 639-641 (Merola, Derenne & Rivas eds., Bruylant, 2013)


Reconsidering financial remedies in WTO dispute settlement, in 16 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 281-311 (Issue 2, 2013) (co-authored with Freya Baetens)


Is the EU obliged to improve the protection of trade secrets? An inquiry into TRIPS, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, in 34 EUROPEAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY REVIEW 673-688 (Issue 10, 2012) (co-authored with Natalie McNelis)


Fair and effective competition policy in the EU: Which role for authorities and which role for the courts after Menarini?, 8 EUROPEAN COMPETITION JOURNAL 283-299 (Issue 2, 2012) (co-authored with Anne Vallery)


Financial Liability of the EU for WTO Violations – A legislative proposal benefiting innocent bystanders, in 39 LEGAL ISSUES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 399-418 (Issue 4, 2012); a Dutch version was published in COULANT COMPENSEREN: OVER OVERHEIDSAANSPRAKELIJKHEID EN RECHTSPOLITIEK 673-698 (Barkhuysen, den Ouden & Tjepkema eds, Kluwer, 2012) (co-authored with Sophie Goelen) 


Norway Post: The EFTA Court advances the debate on human rights and administrative competition law enforcement (case note on Posten Norge AS EFTA Surveillance Authority, EFTA Court, Judgment of 18 April 2012, E-15/10), 15 EUROPEAN LAW REPORTER 105-113 (No. 4, 2012) (co-authored with Anne Vallery)


WTO Regulation of Subsidies, in EU STATE AIDS 210-233 (Hancher, Ottervanger & Slot eds, Sweet & Maxwell, 4th ed., 2012) (co-authored with Gary Horlick & Ravi Soopramanien) EU Competition Law After Menarini: Business as Usual?, 3 MLEX MAGAZINE 44-47 (January-March 2012) (co-authored with Anne Vallery)


No Longer Presumed Guilty? – The Impact of Fundamental Rights on certain Dogmas of EU Competition Law, 44 WORLD COMPETITION 535-570 (No. 4, 2011) (co-authored with Anne Vallery) 


The Domestic Law Effect of the WTO in the EU – a dialogue with Jacques Bourgeois, in TRADE AND COMPETITION LAW IN THE EU AND BEYOND 240-256  (Govaere et al. eds., Edward Elgar, 2011) 


Judicial Dialogue – Challenges for Counsels, in INTERNATIONAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION: DIALOGUE BETWEEN COURTS IN TIMES OF GLOBALIZATION AND REGIONALIZATION 111-126 (Baudenbacher ed., German Law Publishers, 2010)


Non-Discrimination in the WTO Safeguards Agreement: A European Perspective, in LAW AND ECONOMICS OF CONTINGENT PROTECTION IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE 367-373 (Bagwell, Bermann and Mavroidis eds., Cambridge University Press, 2010)


Legal Remedies under the EU's New Chemicals Regulation REACH: Testing a New Model of European Governance, 46 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW  1823-1871 (NO. 6, 2009)  (with Yves van Gerven) 


From 'Direct effect' to ‘Muted dialogue': Recent developments in the European Courts' case law on the WTO and beyond, 11 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 885-898 (NO. 4, 2008); published in slightly different form under the same title in GOEDEREN IN GEDING: MONDIAAL-EUROPEES-NATIONAAL 3-16 (Possen ed., Prinsengrachtreeks 2008/1, Ars Aequi, Nijmegen, 2008), and in VIEWS OF EUROPEAN LAW FROM THE MOUNTAIN: Liber Amicorum Piet Jan Slot 403-416  (Bulterman et al. eds., Kluwer, 2009). 


The Impact of WTO Law on European Food Regulation, 3 EUROPEAN FOOD AND FEED LAW REVIEW 361-375  (NO. 6, 2008) (with Ravi Soopramanien)


The Implications for Ukrainian Business of WTO Accession and EU Association, YUR-GAZETA, 21 October 2008, p. 15 (in Ukrainian)


A Review of the WTO Regime for Telecommunications Services, in THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION AND TRADE IN SERVICES 319-379 (Alexander & Andenas eds., Martinus Nijhoff, 2008) (co-authored with Pierre Larouche)


Private Appeals to WTO Law: An Update, 42 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 245-260 (NO. 2, 2008)


The Relationship of the EC Courts with other International Tribunals: Non-committal, Respectful or Submissive?, 44 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 601-627 (NO. 3, 2007); published as well in ECONOMIC LAW AND JUSTICE IN TIMES OF GLOBALISATION:  Festschrift for Carl Baudenbacher 51-74 (Monti et al.,  eds., Nomos, 2007)


Compliance and Reparation: Practical Proposals for Financial Compensation in the WTO, in TEN YEARS OF WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 139-153 (International Bar Association, Horovitz, Moulis & Steger eds. 2007); also published in slightly different form as Financial Compensation in the WTO: Improving Remedies in WTO Dispute Settlement, in REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM 43-72 (Georgiev and Van der Borght eds., Cameron May, 2006); and in 8 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 101-126 (NO. 1, 2005)  (co-authored with Naboth van den Broek)


WTO Regulation of Subsidies, in EC STATE AID LAW 167-181 (Hancher, Ottervanger & Slot eds, Thomson Maxwell, 3d ed., 2006) (co-authored with Gary Horlick & Natalie McNelis)


The EU’s Responses to Foreign Subsidies: An Overview, in THE WTO TRADE REMEDY SYSTEM: EAST ASIAN PERSPECTIVES 145-157 (Matsushita, Ahn & Chen eds., Cameron May, 2006) (co-authored with Martin Goyette)


WTO Law in the European Court of Justice, 42 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 1313-1355 (NO. 5, 2005); an earlier version was published in Dutch in 52 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 450-466 (November 2004) (co-authored with Pieter Jan Kuijper) 


The Effect of the WTO in European Court Litigation, 40 TEXAS INTERNATIONAL LAW JOURNAL 443-448 (NO. 3, Spring 2005)


The WTO Regime for Telecommunications Services, in I THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: LEGAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS  989 1040 (Appleton & Macrory eds., 3 volumes,  Springer, 2005) (co-authored with Pierre Larouche)


Exceptions to Liberal Trade in Foodstuffs : The Precautionary Approach and Collective Preferences, in THE EFTA COURT 10 YEARS ON 105-114 (Baudenbacher, Tresselt & Orlygsson eds., Hart Publishing, 2005)


REACH Reviewed under WTO Law, 2 JOURNAL FOR EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL & PLANNING LAW 184-194 (NO. 3, 2005) (co-authored with Pablo Charro)


Protection of Regulatory Data in EU and WTO Law: the Example of REACH, 8 JOURNAL OF WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 579-598 (NO.5, 2005); a German version was published as Schutz von Registrierdaten im EU- und WTO-Recht: Das Beispiel von REACH, 2 ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR STOFFRECHT 2-13 (NO. 1, 2005) (co-authored with Petr Ondrusek)


Trade retaliation is a poor way to get even, FINANCIAL TIMES (op-ed page, 24 June 2004, p.15) (co-authored with Naboth van den Broek)


Towards Remedies that Expand rather than Contract Trade, 5 JOURNAL OF WORLD INVESTMENT & TRADE 353-356 (NO. 2, 2004) 


The Special Safeguard Clause in respect of China: (How) Will It Work?; in WTO AND EAST ASIA: NEW PERSPECTIVES 39-50 (Matsushita and Ahn eds., Cameron May, London, 2004); a Chinese version of the article was published in POLITICAL SCIENCE & LAW at Page 147 (Column Exotic Laws), with the National Category Number DF 96, and Article Number 1005-9512 (2005) 02-0147-04;  an earlier version was published as The EU’s Special Safeguard Clause in respect of China: (How) Will It Work?, 30 LEGAL ISSUES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 123-131 (NO. 2, 2003)(co-authored with Martin Goyette)


Trade Policy and Intellectual Property: An Example of Global Governance, in EUROPA UND DIE GLOBALISIERING III (Referate des Dritten Wiener Globalisierungs-Symposiums) 183-187, 210-211 (Baudenbacher & Busek eds., Verlag Österreich 2003)


Where Should WTO Law Go on the Exhaustion of Intellectual Property Rights?, in INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Trade, Competition and Sustainable Development 231-234 (Cottier & Mavroidis eds., University of Michigan Press, 2003) 


The Impact of the WTO on Educational Policy, 87 ECONOMISCHE STATISTISCHE BERICHTEN D30-D32 (NO. 4359, 2002) (in Dutch) (co-authored with Axel Desmedt).


The European Court’s PreussenElektra judgment: Tension between EU principles and national renewable energy initiatives, 22 EUROPEAN COMPETITION LAW REVIEW 458-468 (NO. 10, 2001)  (co-authored with Rosalinde van der Vlies).


La jurisprudence des juridictions communautaires relatives à l’OMC demande réparation: Plaidoyer pour les droits des Etats-membres, 37 CAHIERS DE DROIT EUROPÉEN 3-14 (NO. 1-2, 2001). 


The EU Trade Barriers Regulation Comes of Age, 35 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 427-483 (August 2001); published as well in EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL CO-ORDINATION: Studies in Transnational Economic Law in Honour of Claus-Dieter Ehlermann 55-97 (Von Bogdandy, Mavroidis, & Mény eds., Kluwer, 2002)  (co-authored with Natalie McNelis).


More Power to the WTO?, 4 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW  41-65 (NO. 1, 2001).


The WTO Reference Paper on Telecommunications: A Model for WTO Competition Law?, in NEW DIRECTIONS IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW: Essays in Honour of Professor John H. Jackson 371- 389 (Bronckers & Quick, eds., Kluwer, 2000). 


A Practical Guide to the Enforcement Rules of the TRIPS Agreement (EC Commission, Luxemburg, 2000) (co-authored with Feer Verkade & Natalie McNelis).


Editorial Comment: Outside Counsel in WTO Dispute Process, in 2 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW  155-158  (NO. 1, 1999) (co-authored with John Jackson).


Rethinking the 'Like Product' Definition in WTO Law: Anti-dumping and Environmental Protection, in REGULATORY BARRIERS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF NON-DISCRIMINATION IN WORLD TRADE LAW 345-385 (Cottier and Mavroidis eds., University of Michigan Press, 2000); published in part as Rethinking the 'Like Product' Definition in WTO Anti-dumping Law, in 33 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 73-91 (No. 3, 1999) (co-authored with Natalie McNelis).


Better Rules for a New Millennium: A Warning Against Undemocratic Developments in the WTO, 2 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 547-566 (NO. 4, 1999); a French version is published as Une mise en garde contre des tendances antidémocratiques à l'OMC - De meilleures règles pour un nouveau millénaire, REVUE DU MARCHÉ COMMUN ET DE L'UNION EUROPÉENNE 683-695 (NO. 433, November December  1999); a Dutch version is published as Betere regels voor een nieuw millennium: Een waarschuwing tegen ondemocratische ontwikkelingen in de WTO, 47 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE  WETGEVING  414-423 (November 1999).


Fact and Law in Pleadings Before the WTO Appellate Body, 5 INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW AND REGULATION 118-123 (No. 5, 1999); also included in IMPROVING WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES: Issues and Lessons from the Practice of other International Courts and Tribunals 321-333 (Weiss ed., Cameron May, London, 2000) (co-authored with Natalie McNelis).


Competition Law and WTO: Not so Futuristic, in CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW ISSUES: NEW FORMS, NEW APPLICATIONS, Proceedings of the Fourth Hague Joint Conference of the American Society of International Law and the Nederlandse Vereniging van Internationaal Recht 299-302 (TMC Asser Institute, The Hague, 1998).


The Exhaustion of Patent Rights under WTO Law, 32 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 137-159 (No. 5, 1998).


Telecommunications Services and the World Trade Organization, 31 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 4-48 (no. 3, 1997) (co-authored with Pierre Larouche).


The Enforcement of WTO Law through the EC Trade Barriers Regulation, 3 INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW & REGULATION 76-84 (no. 3, 1997).


Les télécommunications et l'Organisation mondiale du commerce, 53 L'ACTUALITÉ JURIDIQUE DROIT ADMINISTRATIF 267-269 (no. 3, 1997).


The Position of Privatized Utilities under WTO and EC Procurement Rules, 22 LEGAL ISSUES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION 145-160 (1996/1); an updated version is published in LAW AND POLICY IN PUBLIC PURCHASING: THE WTO AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT 243 259 (Hoekman & Mavroidis eds., University of Michigan Press, 1997). 


Rehabilitating Antidumping and other Trade Remedies through Cost-Benefit Analyses, 30 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 5-37 (no. 2, 1996).


Private Participation in the Enforcement of WTO law: The New EC Trade Barriers Regulation, 33 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 299-318 (no. 2, 1996).


WTO Implementation in the European Community: Dumping, Safeguards, and Intellectual Property, 29 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 73-95 (No. 5,1995).


The Impact of TRIPS: Limitations of Intellectual Property Protection in the European Community, in CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL LAW ISSUES: CONFLICTS AND CONVERGENCE, Proceedings of the Third Joint Conference of the American Society of International Law and the Nederlandse Vereniging van Internationaal Recht 230-233 (TMC Asser Institute, The Hague,1995).


The Quarrel about TRIPS: Intellectual Property Protection in Developing Countries, 43 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 623-640 (1995) (in Dutch).


Voluntary Export Restraints and the New GATT Safeguards Agreement, in THE URUGUAY ROUND RESULTS: A EUROPEAN LAWYER'S PERSPECTIVE, 273-279 (Bourgeois, Berrod & Gippini-Fournier eds., European Interuniversity Press, Brussels, 1995).


The Impact of TRIPS: Intellectual Property Protection in Developing Countries, 31 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 1245-1281 (No. 6, 1994).


Cross-Subsidization in EEC Competition Law, in STATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP, NATIONAL MONOPOLIES AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITY LAW, 103-112 (Stuyck & Vossestein eds., Kluwer, 1993).


The Potential and Limitations of the Community's New Trade Policy Instrument, in TRADE LAWS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AND THE UNITED STATES IN A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE 133-164 (Demaret, Bourgeois & Van Bael eds., College of Europe, Bruges, 1992).




Private Remedies against Foreign Subsidization: A European View, in SUBSIDIES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE 187-202 (Bourgeois ed., Kluwer, 1992).


Can the European Community Lawfully Impose Origin Requirements on Trade from Overseas Countries and Territories?, special edition of TIJDSCHRIFT VOOR ANTILLIAANS RECHT - Justicia 34-50 (November 1991) (co-authored with Professor R.H. Lauwaars) (in Dutch, with a summary in English).


Non-Judicial and Judicial Remedies in International Trade Disputes: Some Reflections at the Close of the Case Note on Fediol v. Commission (cases 187-188/85) and Fediol v. Commission (case 70/87), judgments of the European Court of Justice, 38 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 159 173 (1990) (in Dutch).


Private Enforcement of 1992: Do Trade and Industry Stand a Chance Against the Member States?, 26 COMMON MARKET LAW REVIEW 513-533 (No. 3, 1989). What is a Countervailable Subsidy under EEC Trade Law?, 23 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 5-31 (No. 6, December 1989) (co-authored with Dr R. Quick).


National Trade Policy Instruments and the GATT: An EC Lawyer's Perspective, in CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION IN US-EC TRADE RELATIONS 143 151 (Rubin & Jones eds., Oceana Publications, 1989).


Protection against Imports in the European Community: Some Recommendations for Private Initiatives, REVUE DU MARCHÉ COMMUN 10-18 (no. 323, January 1989) (in French).


The EEC New Trade Policy Instrument (Reg. 2641/84): Some Comments on its Application, 22 JOURNAL OF WORLD TRADE 19-38 (No. 6, December 1988) (co-authored with M.I.B. Arnold); published in summary form in 2 LEIDEN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 96-107 (1989).


Comments on Business Strategies for a Unified Market, in EEC-EFTA: MORE THAN JUST GGOOD FRIENDS? 61-67 (Jamar & Wallace eds., College of Europe, Bruges, 1988).


A Legal Analysis of Protectionist Measures Affecting Japanese Imports into the European Community - Revisited, in ROTECTIONISM AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 57-120 (Völker ed., 2d ed., Kluwer, 1987).


Blocking Legislation in the Netherlands, 1 ABA INTERNATIONAL LITIGATION QUARTERLY 240-245 (no. 3, 1985) (co-authored with Professor B.H. ter Kuile). 


Protection of Exports, Chapter I of the Annual Report "Private Enterprise and Trade Policy" to the Joint Meeting of the Dutch and Belgian Society of European Law, 33 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 599-673 (October 1985) (co-authored with Professor B.H. ter Kuile and Dr J. Steenbergen) (in Dutch).


Private Response to Foreign Unfair Trade Practices: US and EC Complaint Procedures, 6 NORTH-WESTERN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW & BUSINESS 651-759 (Winter 1984).


A Legal Analysis of Protectionist Measures Affecting Japanese Imports into the European Community, in PROTECTIONISM AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY 53-98 (Völker, ed., Kluwer, 1983); published in summary form in Dutch in 30 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 670 692 (1982). 


Reconsidering the Non-Discrimination Principle as Applied to GATT Safeguards Measures, A Rejoinder, 9 LEGAL ISSUES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION 113-137 (1983/2).


Case Note on Polydor v. Harlequin (case 276/80), judgment of the European Court of Justice, 76 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 857-862 (1982).


Case Note on Dürbeck v. Hauptzollamt (case 112/80), judgment of the European Court of Justice, 30 SOCIAAL-ECONOMISCHE WETGEVING 184 190 (1982) (in Dutch).


Introduction to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in I.B. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND INTEGRATION 1-21 (Kapteyn et alia eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982).


The Non-Discriminatory Application of Article XIX GATT: Tradition or Fiction?, 7 LEGAL ISSUES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION 35-76 (1981/2).


Trademarks and Medicines: European Case Law and Dutch Practice, Parts I and II, 28 ARS AEQUI 59-73, 119-122 (1979) (in Dutch).